Arica to Tacna – Chile/Peru/Bolivia disputed borders

Posted: August 13, 2011 in Bolivia, Chile, Peru

So reading about the history or Arica I learn,

The city was founded by Spanish captain Lucas Martinez de Begazo in 1541, and in 1570 was entitled as “La Muy Ilustre y Real Ciudad San Marcos de Arica” (the very illustrious and royal city of San Marcos of Arica).

This city was, from 1545, the port for exporting the silver of Potosi, Bolivia. The Potosi silver mine was the largest such mine in world history, making Arica a crucial port for the Spainish Empire.

Known as the “city of the eternal spring”, it was originally a part of Peru.

Arica was occupied by Bolivia, once from 1836–1839, then again from 1841-1842 after the Battle of Ingavi (Augustin Gamarra, President of Peru made the controversial decision to invade Bolivia! His armies were repelled)

War of the Pacific (1879 – 1883) was fought between Chile and the joints forces of Bolivia and Peru (who had now made friends again.) Chile successfully took over Arica and Tarapacá (after the Treaty of Ancon) which left Bolivia as a landlocked country and Peru lost the rich nitrate territories.

And to view some of this history on my daily walk I head up El Morro de Arica, 110m over the city. It was a great place to get my bearings, with views of the city, port and Pacific Ocean. However, this headland has a far greater significance to Chileans, for this was the site of a crucial battle in 1880, a year into the War of the Pacific. The Chilean army assaulted and took El Morro from Peruvian forces in under an hour... Hoorah for the Chileans! Boo hoo for the Peruvians!

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